What are the different steps involved to get an engine remapped?

We will first measure the engine output (with original software) by placing the car on a 4 wheel drive dyno. We then have to read the original software to be able to modify it later. To enable this there are several options available. On the vast majority of car ECUs, we can extract the program directly through OBD (so without removing the ECU from the car). If that is not possible, we then have to remove the ECU from the car and make direct connections to it. For much older ECUs where the chips do not have flash memory (information is in that case fixed and cannot be updated), we are then obliged to remove the OEM chips and use flash memory versions. With the original program extracted, we then optimize it (remap) and transfer the updated software in the ECU. It is then time to measure the engine output on the dyno again to validate the performance gains. It is sometimes required to make several modifications to the software and dyno validations to get to a perfect end result.